CHINABLAETTER.INFO-Lerntext vom 10.3.2005

Wang Zhaoguo erlδutert vor dem NVK den Entwurf des Antisezessionsgesetzes

Quelle (chin. Text): http://politics.people.com.cn/GB/1026/3226900.html

Quelle (engl. Text): www.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/2005-03/08/content_422875.htm

 

关于《反分裂国家法(草案)》的说明

2005年3月8日在第十届全国人民代表大会第三次会议上

全国人民代表大会常务委员会副委员长 王兆国

 

  The following is the full text of the translation of the explanations on the draft Anti-Secession Law, made by Wang Zhaoguo, vice-chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC), at the NPC session Tuesday, March 8, 2005.
各位代表:

  我受全国人大常委会委托,作关于《反分裂国家法(草案)》的说明。
  Fellow Deputies,

I am now entrusted by the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) to make explanations on the Anti-Secession Law (Draft).

 

一、制定本法的必要性和可行性   I. The Necessity and Feasibility of Enacting this Law
解决台湾问题,完成祖国统一大业,是我们党和国家的三大历史任务之一。长期以来,为了发展台湾海峡两岸关系,促进国家和平统一,我们进行了不懈的努力。但是,近一个时期以来,台湾当局加紧推行“台独”分裂活动。在各种不断升级的“台独”分裂活动中,应引起高度警惕的是,台湾当局妄图利用所谓“宪法”和“法律”形式,通过“公民投票”、“宪政改造”等方式,为实现“台独”分裂势力分裂国家的目标提供所谓“法律”支撑,改变大陆和台湾同属一个中国的事实,把台湾从中国分裂出去。事实表明,“台独”分裂势力分裂国家的活动,严重威胁着中国的主权和领土完整,严重破坏和平统一的前景,严重损害中华民族的根本利益,严重威胁着台海地区乃至亚太地区的和平稳定。因此,制定《反分裂国家法》是必要的、适时的。   Resolving the Taiwan question and accomplishing China's complete reunification is one of the three historic tasks of our Party and our country. We have made unremitting efforts over the years to develop stronger relations between the two sides of the Taiwan Straits and promote a peaceful reunification of the motherland. In recent years, however, the Taiwan authorities have intensified their "Taiwan independence" activities aimed at separating Taiwan from China. Among their escalating secessionist activities of various types, we should be particularly watchful that the Taiwan authorities are trying to use so-called " constitutional" or "legal" means through "referendum" or " constitutional reengineering" to back up their secessionist attempt with so-called "legality" and change the fact that both the mainland and Taiwan belong to one and the same China by separating Taiwan from China. Facts have shown that the secessionist activities of the "Taiwan independence" forces gravely threaten China's sovereignty and territorial integrity, seriously endanger the prospects for a peaceful reunification and severely undermine the fundamental interests of the Chinese nation. They have posed a serious threat to peace and stability in the Taiwan Straits and the Asia-Pacific region as a whole. Formulating this Anti-Secession Law, therefore, is both necessary and timely.
近几年来,广大干部群众、社会各界人士和海外侨胞要求以法律手段反对和遏制“台独”分裂势力分裂国家的活动、实现祖国统一的呼声越来越高,全国人大代表提出了不少对台立法的议案和建议,全国政协委员也提出了不少对台立法的提案,表明制定本法是符合人民意愿的。现在制定本法的条件已经具备。宪法明确规定:“台湾是中华人民共和国的神圣领土的一部分。完成统一祖国的大业是包括台湾同胞在内的全中国人民的神圣职责。”这是制定本法的宪法依据。三代中央领导集体特别是邓小平同志、江泽民同志有关解决台湾问题的思想,中央一系列对台方针政策,为制定本法提供了明确的指导思想和政策依据。法学专家和对台事务专家进行的有关研究及取得的成果,也为制定本法创造了一定的条件。   In recent years, our cadres, people, personages from all walks of life and overseas Chinese communities have become increasingly vocal in their appeals for legal means to oppose and check the secessionist activities of the "Taiwan independence" forces and to achieve national reunification. Deputies to the NPC have put forward quite a few bills and recommendations on the Taiwan- related legislation and Members of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) have also made many proposals in this regard. All this shows that the legislative effort conforms with the will of our people. Now all necessary conditions for the legislation are in place. China's Constitution clearly stipulates, "Taiwan is part of the sacred territory of the People's Republic of China. It is the inviolable duty of all Chinese people, including our compatriots in Taiwan, to accomplish the great task of reunifying the motherland."This is the constitutional ground for this legislation. The thoughts of the three generations of Chinese central collective leadership, particularly those of Comrade Deng Xiaoping and Comrade Jiang Zemin, on resolving the Taiwan question and the principles and policies adopted by China's central authorities have provided clear guidance and a policy basis for this legislation. The relevant research by jurists and Taiwan specialists has also created certain enabling conditions for this legislation.
二、起草本法的原则和草案的形成   II. The Principles for and Evolution of the Draft Legislation
制定本法总的原则是:以邓小平理论和“三个代表”重要思想为指导,以宪法为依据,贯彻中央对台工作的大政方针,紧紧围绕反对和遏制“台独”分裂势力分裂国家的活动、促进祖国和平统一这个主题,充分体现我以最大的诚意、尽最大的努力争取和平统一的一贯主张,同时表明全中国人民维护国家主权和领土完整,绝不允许“台独”分裂势力以任何名义、任何方式把台湾从中国分裂出去的共同意志和坚定决心。   The overarching principle for the legislation is to act under the guidance of the Deng Xiaoping Theory and the important thought of "Three Represents" and on the basis of the Constitution, implement the policy guideline of the central authorities on Taiwan, closely focus on the theme of opposing and checking the secessionist activities of the "Taiwan independence" forces and promoting a peaceful reunification of the motherland, give full expression to our consistent position of doing our utmost with maximum sincerity for a peaceful reunification and, at the same time, demonstrate the common will and strong resolve of the entire Chinese people to safeguard China's sovereignty and territorial integrity while never allowing the "Taiwan independence" forces to make Taiwan secede from China under any name or by any means.
制定本法,必须依据上述原则,充分听取各方面的意见,严格遵循法定程序。为了把这部法律制定好,起草本法的工作班子认真研究了近几年来全国人大代表、全国政协委员、社会各界人士和海外侨胞关于对台立法的意见和建议,吴邦国委员长又先后主持召开四个座谈会,分别听取了部分省(市)负责同志、法学专家和对台事务专家、中央有关部门负责同志以及部分台港澳同胞和海外侨胞的意见。经对各方面的意见进行汇总研究,草拟了《反分裂国家法(草案)》(征求意见稿)。胡锦涛总书记主持召开各民主党派中央和全国工商联的负责人及无党派人士座谈会,吴邦国委员长召开法学专家和对台事务专家座谈会,听取了对草案征求意见稿的意见。在此基础上,经对草案征求意见稿进一步修改,形成了《反分裂国家法(草案)》。   In our legislative work, we must base ourselves on the above principles, heed the views from various quarters fully and follow the prescribed procedures strictly. In order to do a proper job, the drafting team carefully reviewed the comments and proposals on the Taiwan-related legislation made by Deputies to the NPC, Members of the National Committee of the CPPCC, people from all walks of life and overseas Chinese communities over the past few years. Chairman Wu Bangguo of the Standing Committee of the NPC convened four workshops to listen to the views of leading officials from certain provinces and municipalities, jurists and Taiwan specialists, heads of relevant central departments, compatriots from Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macao and representatives of overseas Chinese communities. After pooling and studying the opinions from the various quarters, a comment-seeking copy of the Anti-Secession Law (Draft) was prepared. General Secretary Hu Jintao then chaired a forum for the central leaders of the Democratic Parties and the All-China Federation of Industry and Commerce and personages with no party affiliations, and Chairman Wu Bangguo convened a discussion for legal experts and Taiwan specialists to listen to their views on the comment-seeking copy of the draft legislation. The draft was further revised on that basis to become the Anti-Secession Law (Draft) in its present form.
十届全国人大常委会第十三次会议认真审议了该草案,出席会议的常委会组成人员全票通过了《反分裂国家法(草案)》的议案,并决定提请本次大会审议。   At its 13th meeting, the Standing Committee of the Tenth NPC carefully considered the draft legislation, unanimously passed the bill on the Anti-Secession Law (Draft) and decided to submit it to this NPC Session for deliberation.
三、草案的主要内容   III. The Main Contents of the Draft Legislation
(一)关于本法的立法宗旨和适用范围   1. Legislative Purpose and Scope of Application of this Legislation
从当前台海两岸关系形势及其发展趋势看,对“台独”分裂势力分裂国家的活动必须予以坚决反对和遏制,否则,威胁台海地区和平稳定的根源就难以消除,两岸共同发展、共同繁荣的历史机遇就会遭到破坏,台湾同胞的利益和福祉就会被断送,中华民族的根本利益就会受损害。因此,草案开宗明义地规定,为了反对和遏制“台独”分裂势力分裂国家,促进祖国和平统一,维护台湾海峡地区和平稳定,维护国家主权和领土完整,维护中华民族的根本利益,根据宪法,制定本法。这样规定,既明确了本法的立法宗旨,又明确了本法的适用范围。   Given the current state and future trend of the cross-Straits relations, it is imperative to resolutely oppose and check the secessionist activities of the "Taiwan independence" forces. Otherwise, the source of threat to peace and stability in the Taiwan Straits can not be uprooted, the historic opportunity for common development and common prosperity of the two sides of the Straits will be lost, the interests and welfare of the Taiwan compatriots will be ruined and the fundamental interests of the Chinese nation will suffer damage. Therefore, the legislation begins by making clear that this Law is formulated, in accordance with the Constitution, for the purpose of opposing and checking Taiwan's secession from China by secessionists in the name of " Taiwan independence", promoting peaceful national reunification, maintaining peace and stability in the Taiwan Straits, preserving China's sovereignty and territorial integrity, and safeguarding the fundamental interests of the Chinese nation. Such a provision defines both the legislative purpose and the scope of application of this legislation.
(二)关于台湾问题的性质   2. The Nature of the Taiwan Question
明确台湾问题的性质,是解决台湾问题的基点。   Making clear the nature of the Taiwan question is the basis for its settlement.
党的十六大明确提出:“世界上只有一个中国,大陆和台湾同属一个中国,中国的主权和领土完整不容分割。”这是我对台工作的原则立场,受到全中国人民的拥护。台湾问题是上个世纪四十年代后期中国内战遗留的问题。由于种种复杂的因素,两岸迄今尚未统一,但台湾是中国一部分的地位、大陆和台湾同属一个中国的事实并未改变。解决台湾问题,完成祖国统一大业,完全是中国的内政,关系包括台湾同胞在内的全中国人民的根本利益。据此,草案作了以下规定:   The 16th Party National Congress of the Communist Party of China stated, "There is but one China in the world, and both the mainland and Taiwan belong to one China. China's sovereignty and territorial integrity brook no division." This is our principled position on the Taiwan question, a position that enjoys the support of the entire Chinese people. The Taiwan question is one that is left over from China's civil war of the late 1940s. Owing to many complex factors, the two sides of the Taiwan Straits are yet to be reunified. But the fact that Taiwan is part of China and both the mainland and Taiwan belong to one and the same China remains unchanged. Resolving the Taiwan question and accomplishing the great cause of national reunification is entirely an internal affair of China bearing on the fundamental interests of all Chinese people, the Taiwan compatriots included. Accordingly, the draft legislation provides for the following"
1、体现党的十六大有关精神并明确规定,维护国家主权和领土完整是包括台湾同胞在内的全中国人民的共同义务。台湾是中国的一部分,国家绝不允许“台独”分裂势力以任何名义、任何方式把台湾从中国分裂出去。   1) The legislation reaffirms the spirit of the 16th Party National Congress and further makes it clear that safeguarding China's sovereignty and territorial integrity is the common obligation of all Chinese people, the Taiwan compatriots included, Taiwan is part of China and the state shall never allow the " Taiwan independence" forces to make Taiwan secede from China under any name or by any means.
2、台湾问题是中国内战的遗留问题。解决台湾问题,实现国家完全统一,是中国的内部事务。在这个问题上,我们不受任何外国势力的干涉。   2) The Taiwan question is one that is left over from China's civil war of the late 1940s. Solving the Taiwan question and achieving China's complete reunification is China's internal affair. On this question, we will not submit to any interference by outside forces.
3、完成统一祖国的大业是包括台湾同胞在内的全中国人民的神圣职责。   3) Accomplishing the great task of reunifying the motherland is the sacred duty of all Chinese people, the Taiwan compatriots included.
(三)关于以和平方式实现国家统一   3. Achieving National Reunification Through Peaceful Means
坚持一个中国原则,是解决台湾问题不可动摇的基础。以一个中国为原则,体现的是大陆和台湾同属一个中国的事实,追求的是和平统一目标。“和平统一、一国两制”是我解决台湾问题的基本方针。以和平方式实现国家统一,有利于台海两岸同胞的感情融合,有利于台海地区乃至亚太地区的和平稳定,有利于实现中华民族的伟大复兴,最符合包括台湾同胞在内的全中国人民的根本利益。“一国两制”的构想,既体现了实现祖国统一、维护国家主权和领土完整的原则性,又充分考虑了台湾的历史和现实,体现了高度的灵活性。因此,草案规定,坚持一个中国原则,是实现国家和平统一的基础。以和平方式实现国家统一,最符合台湾海峡两岸同胞的根本利益。国家以最大的诚意,尽最大的努力,实现和平统一。国家和平统一后,台湾可以实行不同于大陆的制度,高度自治。   Adhering to the one China principle is the unshakable basis for the settlement of the Taiwan question. The one China principle reflects the very fact that the mainland and Taiwan belong to one and the same China and highlights our goal of a peaceful reunification. "Peaceful reunification and one country, two systems" has been our basic policy in achieving a solution to the Taiwan question. A reunification by peaceful means best serves the fundamental interests of all Chinese people, the Taiwan compatriots included, as it is conducive to fostering a warm affection among compatriots on both sides, to peace and stability in the Taiwan Straits and the Asia-Pacific region as a whole and to the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. The "one country, two systems" formula not only embodies the principled position of achieving national reunification and safeguarding sovereignty and territorial integrity, but allows a high degree of flexibility by taking into full account Taiwan's past and present circumstances. The draft legislation, therefore, provides for upholding the principle of one China as the basis of peaceful reunification of the country, and reunifying the country through peaceful means as best serving the fundamental interests of the compatriots on both sides of the Taiwan Straits. The state shall do its utmost with maximum sincerity to achieve a peaceful reunification. And after the country is reunified peacefully, Taiwan may practice systems different from those on the mainland and enjoy a high degree of autonomy.
维护台海地区和平稳定,促进两岸共同发展、共同繁荣,是两岸同胞的共同愿望,符合两岸同胞的共同利益。为此,草案规定,国家采取下列措施,维护台湾海峡地区和平稳定,发展两岸关系:(一)鼓励和推动两岸居民往来,增进了解,增强互信;(二)鼓励和推动两岸经济交流与合作,直接通邮通航通商,密切两岸经济关系,互利互惠;(三)鼓励和推动两岸教育、科技、文化、卫生、体育交流,共同弘扬中华文化的优秀传统;(四)鼓励和推动两岸共同打击犯罪;(五)鼓励和推动有利于维护台湾海峡地区和平稳定、发展两岸关系的其他活动。国家依法保护台湾同胞的权利和利益。   Maintaining peace and stability in the Taiwan Straits and promoting common development and common prosperity is an aspiration shared by the compatriots on both sides of the Straits and serves their common interests. In this connection, the draft legislation provides for the following measures by the state to maintain peace and stability in the Taiwan Straits and promote cross-Straits relations: 1) to encourage and facilitate personnel exchanges across the Straits for greater mutual understanding and mutual trust; 2) to encourage and facilitate economic exchanges and cooperation, realize direct links of trade, mail, and air and shipping services, and bring about closer economic ties between the two sides of the Straits to their mutual benefit; 3) to encourage and facilitate cross-Straits exchanges in education, science and technology, culture, health and sports, and work together to carry forward the proud Chinese cultural traditions; 4) to encourage and facilitate cross-Straits cooperation in combating crimes; and 5) to encourage and facilitate other activities that are conducive to peace and stability in the Taiwan Straits and stronger cross-Straits relations. The state protects the rights and interests of the Taiwan compatriots in accordance with law.
实现国家和平统一,需要推动台海两岸协商和谈判,并为协商和谈判提供广阔的空间。在坚持一个中国原则的基础上,什么问题都可以谈。草案明确规定:一是,国家主张通过台湾海峡两岸平等的协商和谈判,实现和平统一。协商和谈判可以有步骤、分阶段进行,方式可以灵活多样;二是,台湾海峡两岸可以就正式结束两岸敌对状态、发展两岸关系的规划、和平统一的步骤和安排、台湾当局的政治地位、台湾地区在国际上与其地位相适应的活动空间以及与实现和平统一有关的其他任何问题,进行协商和谈判。   A peaceful reunification requires cross-Straits consultations and negotiations and a broader room be given to them. As long as the one China principle is adhered to, any issue can be put on the table for discussion. The draft legislation expressly provides: 1) The state stands for the achievement of peaceful reunification through consultations and negotiations on an equal footing between the two sides of the Taiwan Straits. These consultations and negotiations may be conducted in steps and phases and with flexible and varied modalities. 2) The two sides may consult and negotiate on officially ending the state of hostility between the two sides, mapping out the development of cross-Straits relations, steps and arrangements for a peaceful reunification, the political status of the Taiwan authorities, the Taiwan region's room of international operation that is compatible with its status, and other matters concerning the achievement of peaceful reunification.
(四)关于以非和平方式制止“台独”分裂势力分裂国家   4. On Taking Non-Peaceful Means to Stop Taiwan's Secession from China by the "Taiwan independence" Forces
我们一贯主张以和平方式实现国家统一。两岸同胞都是中国人,台湾同胞是我们的手足兄弟,没有人比我们更希望通过和平方式实现国家统一。和平统一即使只有一线希望,我们也要尽最大的努力争取而绝不会放弃。同时,必须明确,维护国家主权和领土完整,是我们国家、民族的核心利益,是包括台湾同胞在内的全中国人民的共同义务。我们从来没有承诺过放弃使用武力。任何主权国家都不会容忍分裂国家的行为,都有权采取必要的方式捍卫国家主权和领土完整。   We have consistently stood for reunifying the country through peaceful means. People on both sides of the Taiwan Straits are all Chinese and the Taiwan compatriots are our own brothers and sisters. No one is more desirous of achieving a peaceful reunification than we are. So long as there is a glimmer of hope for peaceful reunification, we will exert our utmost to make it happen rather than give it up. At the same time, let us be absolutely clear that safeguarding sovereignty and territorial integrity is the core interest of our country and our nation and the common obligation of all Chinese people, our Taiwan compatriots included. We have never forsworn the use of force. No sovereign state can tolerate secession and every sovereign state has the right to use necessary means to defend its sovereignty and territorial integrity.
采取非和平方式制止分裂国家、捍卫国家主权和领土完整,是我们在和平统一的努力完全无效的情况下,不得已作出的最后选择。草案规定,“台独”分裂势力以任何名义、任何方式造成台湾从中国分裂出去的事实,或者发生将会导致台湾从中国分裂出去的重大事变,或者和平统一的条件完全丧失,国家得采取非和平方式及其他必要措施,捍卫国家主权和领土完整。草案同时规定,采取非和平方式及其他必要措施,本法授权国务院、中央军委决定、组织实施,并及时向全国人大常委会报告。   Using non-peaceful means to stop secession in defense of our sovereignty and territorial integrity would be our last resort when all our efforts for a peaceful reunification should prove futile. The draft legislation provides that in the event that the "Taiwan independence" forces should act under any name or by any means to cause the fact of Taiwan's secession from China, or that major incidents entailing Taiwan's secession from China should occur, or that possibilities for a peaceful reunification should be completely exhausted, the state shall employ non-peaceful means and other necessary measures to protect China's sovereignty and territorial integrity. The draft legislation also provides that the State Council and the Central Military Commission are authorized to decide on and execute non-peaceful means and other necessary measures, and promptly report to the Standing Committee of the NPC.
这里需要强调,如果“台独”分裂势力一意孤行,迫使我们不得不作出最后选择,采取非和平方式及其他必要措施,完全是针对“台独”分裂势力的,决不是针对台湾同胞的。草案明确规定,依照本法规定采取非和平方式及其他必要措施并组织实施时,国家尽最大可能保护台湾平民和在台湾的外国人的生命财产安全和其他正当权益,减少损失;同时,国家依法保护台湾同胞在中国其他地区的权利和利益。   It needs to be stressed here that should the "Taiwan independence" forces insist on going their own way and leave us with no other option but to employ non-peaceful means and other necessary measures, such means and measures would be completely targeted against the "Taiwan independence" forces rather in any way against our Taiwan compatriots. The draft legislation clearly provides that in the event of employing and executing non-peaceful means and other necessary measures, the state shall exert its utmost to protect the lives, property and other legitimate rights and interests of Taiwan civilians and foreign nationals in Taiwan, and to minimize losses; at the same time, the state shall protect the rights and interests of the Taiwan compatriots in other parts of China in accordance with law.
《反分裂国家法(草案)》和以上说明,请审议。(新华社北京3月8日电)   I have hereby presented the Anti-Secession Law (Draft) and the foregoing explanations for your deliberation.