Chinablaetter-Lerntext vom 8.6.2005

Position Paper of the People's Republic of China on the United Nations Reforms (7.6.2005)

Offizieller Text in chinesischer und englischer Sprache

Quelle: Online-Dienst der Xinhua-Nachrichtenagentur


Teil 1:

Allgemeines, Prinzipien

I. Development Issues

II. Security Issues

Teil 2:

III. Rule of Law, Human Rights and Democracy

IV. Strengthening the UN

Quellenverzeichnis (URL's)

 

新华网北京6月7日电 中国政府7日发布《中国关于联合国改革问题的立场文件》,文件全文如下:   BEIJING, June 7 (Xinhuanet) -- China on Tuesday issued a position paper on the United Nations' reforms. The following is the full text of the paper:
中国关于联合国改革问题的立场文件   Position Paper of the People's Republic of China on the United Nations Reforms
进入新世纪以来,国际形势发生深刻和复杂的变化。和平与发展仍是时代主题,但不确定、不稳定因素有所增加。实现人类社会的持久和平与普遍发展既有难得的机遇,也面临严峻的挑战。   With the advent of a new century, international situation is undergoing profound and complex changes. Peace and development remain the themes of the times, but uncertain and unstable elements are on the rise. We are faced with rare opportunities as well as grave challenges to realize enduring peace and common development of human society.
在全球化深入发展、各国依存不断密切的情况下,全球性威胁和挑战呈现多元化的特点,更加相互关联。对这些威胁都应予以高度重视,不能厚此薄彼。各国应共同努力,通过沟通加深理解,通过对话增强信任,通过交流推动合作,以集体行动应对威胁和挑战,特别是努力消除其产生的根源。   Against the backdrop of in-depth development of globalization and increasingly closer interdependence of states, global threats and challenges have become more diverse and interconnected. All threats, new or old, "soft" or "hard", direct or indirect, should be treated with equal seriousness and emphasis without partiality. All countries should make concerted efforts to deepen understanding through contacts, enhance trust through dialogues, and promote cooperation through communications, so as to cope with threats and challenges, especially to eliminate their root causes, by collective action.
联合国在国际事务中的作用不可或缺。作为最具普遍性、代表性和权威性的政府间国际组织,联合国是实践多边主义的最佳场所,是集体应对各种威胁和挑战的有效平台,应该继续成为维护和平的使者,推动发展的先驱。通过改革加强联合国作用,符合全人类的共同利益。   The United Nations plays an indispensable role in international affairs. As the most universal, representative, authoritative inter-governmental international organization, the UN is the best venue to practice multilateralism, and an effective platform for collective actions to cope with various threats and challenges. It should continue to be a messenger for the maintenance of peace, and a forerunner for the promotion of development promotion. A reformed UN with a bigger role to play will serve the common interests of humanity.
中国欢迎“威胁、挑战与变革”高级别名人小组报告、联合国千年发展项目报告以及秘书长综合报告。这些报告就振兴和改革联合国提出了不少有益、可行的思路和建议。中国愿与各方一道,推动联合国改革取得积极成果,推动将于今年9月举行的首脑会议取得成功。   China welcomes the report of the High-Level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change, UN Millennium Project Report and the comprehensive report of the UN Secretary-General, all of which put forward some useful and feasible approaches and proposals for the rejuvenation and reform of the UN. China is ready to work with all other parties to push for positive results of UN reforms and success of the summit in September.
中国认为,联合国改革应遵循以下原则:   China maintains that UN reforms should observe the following principles:
- 改革应有利于推动多边主义,提高联合国的权威和效率,以及应对新威胁和挑战的能力。   –Reforms should be in the interest of multilateralism, and enhance UN’s authority and efficiency, as well as its capacity to deal with new threats and challenges.
- 改革应维护《联合国宪章》的宗旨和原则,特别是主权平等、不干涉内政、和平解决争端、加强国际合作等。   –Reforms should safeguard the purposes and principles enshrined in the UN Charter, especially those of sovereign equality, non-interference in internal affairs, peaceful resolution of conflicts and strengthening international cooperation, etc.
- 改革是全方位、多领域的,在安全和发展两方面均应有所建树,特别是扭转联合国工作“重安全、轻发展”的趋势,加大在发展领域的投入,推动落实千年发展目标。   –Reforms should be all-dimensional and multi-sectoral, and aim to succeed in both aspects of security and development. Especially, reforms should aim at reversing the trend of “UN giving priority to security over development” by increasing inputs in the field of development and facilitating the realization of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).
- 改革应最大限度地满足所有会员国、尤其是广大发展中国家的要求和关切。应发扬民主,充分协商,努力寻求最广泛一致。   –Reforms shall accommodate the propositions and concerns of all UN members, especially those of the developing countries. Reforms should be based on democratic and thorough consultations and the most broadly-based consensus.
- 改革应先易后难、循序渐进,有助于维护和增进联合国会员国的团结。对达成一致的建议,可尽快作出决定,付诸实施;对尚存分歧的重大问题,要采取谨慎态度,继续磋商,争取广泛一致,不人为设定时限或强行推动作出决定。   –Reforms should proceed gradually from tackling more manageable problems to thornier ones and be carried out in a way that will maintain and promote solidarity among members. For those proposals on which consensus has been reached, decision may be made promptly for their implementation; for important issues where division still exists, prudence, continued consultations and consensus-building are called for. It is undesirable to set a time limit or force a decision.
一、发展问题   I. Development Issues
发展是各国人民的共同诉求,是集体安全机制和人类文明进步的基础。贫困、疾病、环境恶化同样对国际社会构成严重挑战。要重视发展中国家的需要,实现全球协调、平衡和普遍的发展。   Development is the common pursuit of people from all countries and bedrock for a collective security mechanism and the progress of human civilization. Poverty, diseases, environmental degradation are also grave challenges to the international community. Serious attention must be given to the needs of developing countries, with a view to achieving coordinated, balanced and universal development around the world.
(一)贫困   1. Poverty
- 解决贫困问题的当务之急是推动落实联合国千年发展目标。这应成为联合国改革和9月首脑会议的重点。   –To eliminate poverty, an urgent priority is to facilitate the implementation of the MDGs. This should become the focus of UN reforms and the September summit.
- 应引导全球化的平衡发展,加强发展中国家在国际经济事务中的平等参与权与决策权。   - We should steer globalization toward balanced development, and strengthen developing countries’ position for equal participation and decision-making in international affairs.
- 中国支持发展中国家根据本国国情,尽快制定并启动实现千年发展目标的全面国家战略。国际社会应为此提供必要的帮助。   - China supports developing countries’ efforts to promptly formulate and implement comprehensive national strategies in light of their own national conditions for the realization of MDGs. The international community should provide necessary assistance to support these efforts.
- 国际发展援助应充分考虑发展中国家国情,增加受援国自主权与参与权,以提高援助效果。   - International development assistance should be provided in a way that takes into full consideration the national conditions of developing countries, and increases the recipient countries' autonomy and participation in this process for better results.
- 中国支持秘书长关于官方发展援助达到国民生产总值0.7%时间表的建议,并认为应制定具体落实方案,建立相应监督和评估机制。   - China is in favor of the Secretary-General's recommendations of a timetable for increasing Official Development Assistance(ODA) to 0.7% of national GDP, and believes that it is necessary to draw detailed implementation plans and set up a monitoring and assessing mechanism.
- 在发挥官方发展援助主导作用的同时,支持国际社会探讨创新性筹资方式作为官方发展援助的有益补充。   - China supports international efforts to explore innovative resources as a useful supplement to ODA, which should continues to play a major role.
- 推动改革和完善国际金融体制,使其遵循平等互利原则,监控、引导国际资本合理流动,防范金融危机。    - We shall reform and improve the international financial system to make it consistent with the principle of equality and mutual benefit, and monitor, and guide rational flows of international capital to fend off financial crises.
- 应建立、健全开放、公平的多边贸易体制,充分考虑发展中成员和新加入成员的利益,尽快按多哈宣言的授权取消对农产品的补贴、实质性削减关税和非关税贸易壁垒。   - We should establish and improve an open and fair multilateral trading system, based on full consideration of the interests of developing and new members, and eliminate agricultural subsidies and substantially reduce tariff and non-tariff trade barriers as soon as possible in accordance with the mandate provided by the Doha Declaration.
- 中方支持推动第六届世界贸易组织香港部长级会议按照2004年7月框架协议和多哈部长宣言的授权,就谈判模式达成协议,以便尽早完成世界贸易组织多哈回合谈判,使之真正成为“发展的一轮”。   - The Chinese side supports efforts to promote an agreement on the modality of negotiations at the 6th WTO Ministerial Conference in Hong Kong in accordance with the July 2004 approximation and the mandate provided by the Doha Declaration, with a view to achieving an early completion of the Doha round and making it a genuine "development round".
- 发达国家应切实减免发展中国家的债务,使更多的资金用于发展。   –The developed countries should reduce and forgive, in real earnest, debts owed to them by developing countries, so that more capital will be available for development.
- 应鼓励加强公共和私营部门伙伴关系,动员多种资源,促进经济增长,消除贫困。   –We should encourage and strengthen public-private partnerships and mobilize more resources to promote economic growth and eliminate poverty.
- 中国支持加强南南合作,分享经验,拓展合作,互利互助,增强发展的内在能力。   –China supports to strengthen South-South cooperation, including sharing experience, expanding areas of cooperation and mutual assistance for mutual benefit, in order to enhance capacity building for development.
(二)疾病   2. Disease
- 各国应继续抓紧落实关于“加强全球公共卫生能力建设”的联大第58/3和59/27号决议,将发展公共卫生事业纳入各自发展计划和活动当中,建立科学规范的公共卫生体系,健全传染病监测、预防、控制、治疗和信息通报网络。发达国家应向发展中国家提供帮助。   –All countries should promptly implement the  UN resolutions 58/3 and 59/27 related to "enhancing capacity-building in global public health", put public health development in the context of their own development plans and activities, establish scientific and standardized public health systems, and improve the monitoring, prevention, control, treatment and reporting networks for contagious diseases. The developed world should help the developing countries in this regard.
- 联合国系统各有关机构应考虑将公共卫生纳入其活动、方案和规划中,进一步支持各国加强公共卫生能力建设,促进国际合作。   –Relevant agencies operating within the UN system should consider incorporating public health into their activities, programs and plans, give greater support to all countries in strengthening public health capacity and promote international cooperation.
- 应加强世界卫生组织和其它相关国际组织在疾病防治方面的指导和协调作用。中国支持向世界卫生组织全球疫情警报和反应网络提供更多资源。   –We should strengthen the guiding and coordinating role of the World Health Organization and other relevant international organizations in disease prevention and treatment. China is in favor of more resources being channeled for the WHO Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network.
- 中国支持尽快就修订《国际卫生条例》达成协议。   (fehlt)
- 应进一步加强艾滋病防治工作。当务之急是在现有合作框架内,加快落实《艾滋病特别联大宣言》有关承诺。发达国家应履行承诺,为发展中国家艾滋病防治提供更多资金和技术支持。   –We should make further efforts to prevent and treat HIV/AIDS. The immediate priority is to speed up the implementation of the Declaration of Commitment on HIV/ AIDS within the existing cooperation framework. The developed countries shall honor their commitments through the provision of more financial and technical support to the developing countries in the prevention and treatment of HIV /AIDS.
- 如何界定传染病是否对国际和平与安全构成威胁,目前没有公认标准。安理会作为主要处理对国际和平与安全构成重大威胁问题的机构,不宜重复其它机构的工作。   –Currently there is no universally recognized standards to define whether contagious diseases pose a threat to international peace and security. Given that the Security Council’s main function is to deal with issues that pose grave threats to international peace and security, it is unadvisable for it to repeat the work of other agencies.
(三)环境   3. Environmental Issues
- 中国主张树立科学发展观,将可持续发展和环境保护纳入国家发展战略,统筹协调经济、社会发展与环境保护三者之间的关系。    - China stands for a scientific concept of development encompassing, inter alia, incorporating sustainable development and environmental protection into national development strategy and coordinating relations between economic, social development and environmental protection.
- 各国应按照“共同但有区别责任”原则开展可持续发展国际合作,重点是帮助发展中国家有效应对环境挑战,特别是帮助其解决水资源短缺、城市空气污染、生态恶化、荒漠化等紧迫问题。发达国家应落实承诺,向发展中国家提供相关技术转让和资金支持,帮助发展中国家进行能力建设。    - Countries ought to engage in international cooperation for sustainable development according to the principle of Common but Differentiated Responsibilities, focusing on helping developing countries cope with environmental challenges effectively, especially such urgent issues as water scarcity, urban air pollution, ecological degradation and desertification. Developed countries ought to honour their commitments through technological transfer and provision of financial support aimed at capacity-building of developing countries.
- 实现可持续发展是应对全球气候变化的最有效途径。国际社会在制定能源政策和气候变化政策以及其他相关政策时,应切实考虑到各国的现实需求和挑战。   Sustainable development is the most effective response to global climate change. The international community should give serious consideration to the immediate needs and challenges of countries when formulating policies on energy, climate change and other related issues.
- 《联合国气候变化框架公约》为应对气候变化国际合作提供了有效框架。京都议定书为有关缔约国规定的2008-2012年的各项义务,包括减排温室气体,向发展中国家提供技术转让、资金支持和能力建设等方面的援助等应得到切实履行。   - The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change provides an fundamental and effective framework for international cooperation in response to climate change. Obligations for 2008-2012 provided for in the Kyoto Protocol, including reduction in emission of greenhouse gases, transfer of know-how to developing countries, financial support and assistance in areas such as capacity-building should be fulfilled in real earnest.
- 发达国家2012年后应继续根据公约“共同但有区别的责任”原则率先采取减排措施。同时,国际社会可探讨更为务实和灵活的国际机制,促进国际技术合作,推动先进能源技术在发展中国家的适用,促进可持续发展,提高国际社会应对气候变化的能力。   - Developed countries should take the lead in adopting measures to reduce emission after 2012 in continued compliance with the principle of Common but Differentiated Responsibilities. Meanwhile, the international community may explore a more pragmatic and flexible mechanism, promote international technical cooperation and enhance international capacity to cope with climate change.
- 中国支持加强现有环境机构间的协调与合作,整合资源,提高效率,促进政策的协调。中国愿研究旨在实现上述目标的相关建议。   - China is in favor of stepping up coordination and cooperation among existing environmental protection institutions and integrating resources for higher efficiency and better coordinated policies. China is open to related recommendations aimed at achieving the afore-mentioned goals.
(四)自然灾害   4. Natural Disaster
- 中国支持尽快设立所有自然灾害的全球预警系统,加强国家、区域和国际各层面在紧急人道主义援助和减少灾害风险方面的协调与合作。   China supports the establishment of worldwide early warning systems for all natural disasters at an early date, supports the strengthening of coordination and cooperation for emergency humanitarian assistance and disaster reduction at the national, regional and international levels.
二、安全问题    II. Security Issues
我们赞成秘书长关于采取集体行动应对各种安全威胁和挑战的主张,这同中方倡导建立“互信、互利、平等、协作”新安全观的目标是一致的。建立一个有效力、效率和公平的集体安全机制,关键是坚持多边主义,推动实现国际关系民主化和法治化,坚持《联合国宪章》的宗旨和原则,加强联合国的权威与能力,维护安理会作为集体安全体系核心的地位。   We endorse the Secretary-General's proposal concerning collective action against security threats and challenges. It is consistent with China's proposal for a new security concept that features "mutual trust, mutual benefit, equality and coordination". To establish an effective, efficient and fair collective security mechanism, the key lies in adhering to mutilateralism, promoting democracy and rule of law in international affairs, sticking to the purposes and principles of the UN Charter, strengthening the authority and capability of the UN and safeguarding the centrality of the Security Council to the collective security system.
(一)战争与冲突   1.War and Conflict
- 国家间冲突应按照《联合国宪章》和国际法,通过平等协商、和平谈判加以解决。   - Inter-state conflict should be addressed through peaceful negotiation and consultation on an equal footing in accordance with the UN Charter and international law.
- 国内冲突情况复杂,是否危及国际和平与安全,应具体问题具体分析。解决国内冲突应主要靠当事国人民努力。外部支持应以《联合国宪章》为基础,以国际法为准绳,采取谨慎和负责态度,综合应用政治、外交等手段,鼓励和帮助冲突方通过协商和谈判解决问题。   - Internal conflicts are complex. Whether they threaten world peace and security needs to be judged on a case-by-case basis. The resolution of internal conflicts should mainly rely on the efforts of the people of the State. External support should be given with caution and responsibility in compliance with the UN Charter and international law and should combine political and diplomatic measures with a prudent and responsible attitude to encourage and facilitate the resolution of problems through consultation and negotiation between the conflicting parties.
(二)反恐   2.Counter-terrorism
- 中国主张并支持打击一切形式的恐怖主义。国际反恐努力要充分发挥联合国的主导与协调作用,注意标本兼治,应避免政治化,不能采取双重标准。   - China stands for and supports the fight against terrorism in all forms and manifestations. International counter-terrorism efforts should give full play to the UN's leading and coordinating role, address both the root causes and symptoms and avoid politicization and double standards.
- 中国支持尽快制定全球综合反恐战略,赞同以秘书长提出的五个支柱为基础加以发展。    - China supports a global comprehensive strategy against terrorism to be formulated as soon as possible and endorses the five pillars proposed by the Secretary-General as the foundation of such strategy.
- 中国支持进一步完善现有反恐条约体系和法律框架。各国应考虑尽快签署和批准现有的国际反恐公约,并本着合作和建设性态度,尽快就《关于国际恐怖主义的全面公约》草案达成一致。   - China supports further improvement of the existing counter-terrorism conventions and legal framework. Countries ought to consider early signing and ratifying the existing international counter-terrorism conventions and reach agreement as soon as possible on the draft Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism in a coorporative and constructive spirit.
- 中国希望在恐怖主义定义问题上形成共识。有关定义可适当参照现有国际公约及安理会决议的相关规定。    - China hopes for a consensus on the definition of terrorism. The definition may draw on, as appropriate, the existing international conventions and related provisions of Security Council resolutions.
- 会员国及民间组织在参与反恐合作过程中必须遵守《联合国宪章》和相关国际法准则。   - Member States and civil society must comply with the UN Charter and relevant norms of international law when participating counter-terrorism cooperation.
- 对反恐过程中的侵犯人权行为,应充分利用人权会现有机制、公约机构和国际人道主义法监督机制加以解决,目前没有必要设立新机制。   - Acts of violation against human rights that arise in counter-terrorism activities should be addressed by fully utilizing the existing mechanisms of the Commission on Human Rights, conventional institutions and supervision mechanism of international humanitarian law. At present, there is no need to set up a new mechanism.
- 中国支持加强安理会反恐委员会职能,扩大执行局权限,特别是帮助发展中国家加强反恐能力建设,并为此设立能力建设信托基金。   - China supports the strengthening of functions of the Counter-Terrorism Commission of the Security Council and the expansion of the mandate of its Executive Directorate, especially the reinforcement of developing countries’ capacity against terrorism and the establishment of a capacity building trust fund for this purpose.
- 中国认为,有必要任命一名联合国反恐事务协调员。   - China believes it necessary to appoint a UN coordinator for counter-terrorism affairs.
(三)裁军与防扩散   3. Disarmament and Non-proliferation
- 中国一贯主张全面禁止和彻底销毁大规模杀伤性武器,反对此类武器及其运载工具任何形式的扩散。中国一直积极推进国际核裁军进程。   - China has always stood for the comprehensive prohibition and thorough destruction of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and opposed any forms of proliferation of WMD and their delivery systems. China has been actively promoting the international nuclear disarmament process.
- 核武器国家应缔结互不首先使用核武器的条约。核武器国家还应无条件地承诺不对无核武器国家或无核武器区使用或威胁使用核武器,并就此达成有约束力的国际法律文书。   - All nuclear weapon states should conclude a treaty on non-first use of nuclear weapons. They should also commit themselves unconditionally to not using or threatening to use nuclear weapons against non-nuclear weapon countries or regions and conclude a binding international legal instrument in this regard.
-国际社会应采取切实有效步骤,维护和加强《不扩散核武器条约》条约的普遍性和权威性。条约缔约国应本着建设性态度,平衡对待条约三大目标。   - The international community should take effective measures in real earnest to maintain and strengthen the universality and authority of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). All signatories should adopt a constructive attitude and a balanced view towards the three major goals of the Treaty.
- 中国支持《全面禁止核试验条约》,希望条约尽早生效。中国将继续暂停核武器试验,并争取早日批准条约。   - China supports the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty and hopes that the Treaty will come into effect at an early date. China will maintain its moratorium on nuclear tests and work for the early ratification of the Treaty.
- 中国支持在日内瓦裁军谈判会议达成一项平衡的工作计划基础上,尽快启动“禁止为核武器或其他核爆炸装置生产裂变材料条约”的谈判。   - China supports the early launch of negotiation on the Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty on the basis of a balanced program of work to be agreed at the Disarmament Conference in Geneva.
- 中国支持国际原子能机构(IAEA)根据《规约》宗旨,在防止核武器扩散及促进各国和平利用核能方面发挥重要作用。当前形势下,有必要通过国际合作与协商,探讨如何进一步增强核不扩散机制,包括采取适当措施进一步加强国际原子能机构保障监督有效性等重要问题。强调IAEA附加议定书的重要性,希其普遍性得到加强。   - China supports the important role played by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in preventing nuclear weapon proliferation and promoting peaceful use of nuclear energy in accordance with the purposes of its Statute. Under the current circumstances, it is necessary to discuss, through international cooperation and consultation, how to further strengthen the nuclear non-proliferation regime, which includes such an important issue as how to take appropriate measures to further strengthen the effectiveness of IAEA safeguards. China stresses the importance of IAEA Additional Protocol and hopes to see the strengthening of its universality.
- 中国支持并积极参与旨在加强《生物和毒素武器公约》有效性的多边努力,对就《公约》核查议定书立即恢复谈判持积极态度。中国支持公约缔约国谈判制定一项新的生物安全议定书,对危险生物制剂分类,并为此类制剂出口订立有约束力的国际标准。   - China supports and actively participates in multilateral efforts aimed at strengthening the effectiveness of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC) and takes a positive attitude towards the immediate resumption of negotiation on a verification protocol of the Convention. China supports the conclusion of a new biological security protocol by the State Parties to the Convention through negotiations so as to classify dangerous biological agents and establish binding international standards for the export of agents of this kind.
- 中国支持加强《生物和毒素武器公约》与《禁止化学武器公约》的普遍性。- 《生物和毒素武器公约》的协商、合作与调查机制是处理指称使用生物武器的主要手段,缔约国应予遵行。秘书长机制有其特定的历史背景和适用范围。如多数国家同意,可通过多边谈判全面重新审议。   - China is in favor of strengthening the universality of the BTWC and the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC).- The States Parties to the BTWC should observe the consultation, cooperation and investigation mechanism of the Convention, which is a main means to deal with the alleged use of biological weapons. The Secretary-General mechanism has its own historical background and scope of application. If most States Parties agree, it may be completely reviewed through multilateral negotiations.
- 鼓励所有缔约国按照《生物和毒素武器公约》相关审议大会的要求,提交建立信任措施的有关资料。   - China encourages all States Parties to submit information on confidence-building measures as required by the Review Conference of the BTWC.
- 拥有化学武器的国家应加速销毁全部现有化武储存、老化武和遗弃在别国领土上的化武。禁化武组织核查机制运转大体正常,缔约国还可通过澄清、协商、合作等机制处理、解决违约关切。如发生严重违约情况,缔约国大会或执理会可提请联合国大会和安理会注意该问题。   - Countries that have chemical weapons should accelerate their efforts to destroy their complete storage of chemical weapons, old chemical weapons and chemical weapons abandoned in other countries. The verification mechanism of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) generally functions well. The States Parties can address concerns for breach through mechanisms of clarification, consultation and cooperation. If material breach happens, the Conference of the States Parties or the Executive Council may call the attention of the UN General Assembly and the Security Council to that question.
- 中国反对大规模杀伤性武器及其运载工具的扩散,支持加强现有国际防扩散机制,主张在国际法框架内通过政治和外交手段解决扩散问题。任何防扩散措施都应有助于增进国际和地区的和平、安全和稳定。与许多国家一样,我们不赞成“防扩散安全倡议”在国际法范畴外采取拦截措施。   - China opposes the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their delivery systems, supports the strengthening of the current international non-proliferation regime and calls for the resolution of proliferation issues within the framework of international law by political and diplomatic means. Any non-proliferation measures should contribute to international and regional peace, security and stability. Like many other nations, China is not in favor of the interceptive measures taken by the Proliferation Security Initiative beyond the international law.
- 防止外空武器化和外空军备竞赛有助于维护全球战略稳定,促进军控与裁军进程。国际社会应高度重视,采取积极有效的措施防患于未然。日内瓦裁谈会应尽快设立特设委员会,谈判缔结相关国际法律文书,或以此为目标开展工作,弥补现有外空法律机制的漏洞,切实防止外空武器化和外空军备竞赛。   - The prevention of weaponization of outer space and any forms of arms race in outer space conduces to global strategic stability and promotes the process of arms control and disarmament. The international community should attach great importance to this and take vigorous and effective measures to forestall this danger. The Conference on Disarmament in Geneva should promptly set up an ad hoc committee for the negotiations and conclusion of relevant international legal instruments or work toward the objective of plugging the loopholes in the current legal regime of outer space and effectively preventing the weaponization of outer space and any forms of arms race in outer space.
-《特定常规武器公约》在解决战争引起的人道主义关切方面发挥了重要作用。中国一直积极参与和公约相关的各项工作。中国希望《战争遗留爆炸物议定书》尽早生效并得到切实履行。中国将继续支持并参与《特定常规武器公约》政府专家组工作,希望有关工作取得进展。   - The Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons plays an important role in addressing the humanitarian concerns arising from war. China has always actively participated in all work related to the Convention. China hopes that the Protocol on the Explosive Remnants of War will come into effect at an early date and be implemented in real earnest. China will continue to support and participate in the work of Group of governmental Experts of the Convention; hoping progress will be made in related work.
- 中国支持国际社会打击小武器非法贸易的努力,支持谈判达成有关“识别和追查非法小武器”的国际文书。小武器非法贸易涉及裁军、安全、发展和人道主义等多方面因素,应寻求全面妥善的解决办法。各国应承担首要责任,加强相互协调与合作,联合国应继续发挥主导作用。   - China supports the international community's efforts in combating the illicit trade in small arms and light weapons and supports the negotiation for the conclusion of an international instrument on “marking and tracing of the illicit small arms and light weapons”. The illicit trade in small arms involves many factors such as disarmament, security, development and humanitarianism and should be addressed through a comprehensive and appropriate approach. In this regard, states shall take on the  primary responsibilities and strengthen coordination and cooperation, and the UN should continue to play a leading role.
(四)有组织犯罪   4. Organized Crime
- 中国支持加强国际和地区合作,打击跨国有组织犯罪。发达国家应在提供资源方面承担更多义务。   - China supports the enhancement of international and regional cooperation to crack down on transnational organized crimes. Developed countries should fulfil greater obligations of providing resources.
-中国希望打击跨国有组织犯罪和腐败等方面的国际公约能得到有效实施。   - China hopes to see effective implementation of international conventions on combating transnational organized crimes and corruption.
- 联合国毒品和犯罪问题办公室应努力协助各国履行公约。   - The UN Office on Drugs and Crime should strive to help countries comply with the conventions.
- 在确保联合国现有国际公约有效实施的前提下,中国对在联合国框架谈判制定新的必要的国际公约不持异议。中国对谈判制定一项关于洗钱问题的全面国际公约持开放态度。   - Provided that the existing international conventions concluded at the UN are effectively implemented, China does not object to the negotiation and conclusion of necessary new international conventions within the UN framework.
(五)预防与调停   5. Prevention and Mediation
- 中国支持联合国建立“预防文化”,加大对预防冲突和调停的投入,特别是完善预警、实地调查团等机制和措施。   - China supports the establishment of the "prevention culture" by the UN and larger input into conflict prevention and mediation, especially the improvement of mechanisms and measures such as early warning and fact-finding mission.
- 会员国既要充分发挥安理会在此方面的主导作用,也要支持秘书长根据授权履行斡旋和调解职能。   - The Member States should give full play to the leading role of the Security Council and support the Secretary-General's authorized good offices and mediation.
(六)制裁   6. Sanctions
- 中国一贯主张谨慎使用制裁,必须以用尽和平解决的所有手段为前提。一旦安理会决定实施制裁,各国均有义务严格执行。   - China has always maintained that sanctions should be applied with prudence on the precondition that all peaceful means have been exhausted. Once the Security Council decides to impose sanctions, all countries are obliged to comply strictly.
- 中国支持改进联合国制裁机制,设立严格标准,加强针对性,设定明确时限,并尽可能减少制裁引发人道主义危机和对第三国的影响。各制裁委员会应定期评估制裁造成的人道主义影响。   - China is in favor of improving the sanctions mechanism of the UN, setting a strict criterion, making it well focused, setting explicit time limits and minimizing the possibility of humanitarian crisis arising from sanctions and its impact on the third country. The committees on sanction should regularly evaluate the humanitarian impact of sanctions.
- 国际社会应帮助发展中国家加强执行制裁的能力。   - The international community should help developing countries build capacity for sanctions implementation.
(七)使用武力   7. Use of force
- 和平解决国际争端与在国际关系中不使用武力是《宪章》的重要原则和国际法基本准则。中国一贯主张通过和平方式解决国际争端,反对在国际关系中使用武力或以武力相威胁。   - Peaceful settlement of international disputes and non-use of force in international relations is an important principle of the UN Charter and a basic norm of international law. China consistently stands for settlement of international disputes by peaceful means and opposes the threat or use of force in international relations.
- 我们赞成既不修改《宪章》第51条,也不重新解释第51条。《宪章》对使用武力已有明确规定,除因遭受武力攻击而进行自卫外,使用武力必须得到安理会授权。对是否构成“紧迫威胁”,应由安理会根据《宪章》第七章并视具体情况判定,慎重处理。   - We are of the view that Article 51 of the Charter should neither be amended nor reinterpreted. The Charter lays down explicit provisions on the use of force, i.e. use of force shall not be resorted to without the authorization of the Security Council with the exception of self-defense under armed attack. Whether an urgent threat exists should be determined and handled with prudence by the Security Council in accordance with Chapter 7 of the Charter and in light of the specific situation.
- 导致发生危机的原因和各类危机的情况不尽相同。就使用武力形成一个“放之四海皆准”的规则和标准不现实,也容易引起较大争议。是否使用武力,应由安理会视冲突实际情况逐案处理。   - Given the varying causes and nature of crises, it is both unrealistic and hugely controversial to formulate a "one -fits-all" rule or criterion on the use of force. Whether to use force or not should be decided by the Security Council in light of the reality of conflicts on a case-by-case basis.
- 安理会是联合国唯一可决定使用武力的机构。区域办法或区域组织采取强制性行动,必须事先得到安理会授权。   - The Security Council is the only body that can decide the use of force. Regional arrangements or organizations must obtain Security Council authorization prior to any enforcement action.
(八)维和   8. Peacekeeping
- 联合国维和行动应遵循《联合国宪章》以及实践证明行之有效的各项基本原则,包括中立、当事方同意以及非自卫不得使用武力等。   - UN peacekeeping operations should comply with the UN Charter and all the basic principles that are proven effective, including neutrality, consent of parties concerned and non-use of force except for self-defense, etc.
- 中方支持加强联合国维和行动能力,欢迎秘书长关于建立战略储备、成立维和民警待命安排的建议。希望秘书处根据联大维和特别委员会的要求,对建议的诸多方面予以细化和澄清。建立新机制需要进行谨慎、周密的研究,确保其可行性、有效性,整合资源,量力而行,并充分发挥现有机制的潜力。   - China supports the enhancement of the UN's peacekeeping capacity and welcomes the Secretary-General's proposal on the establishment of strategic reserves and civilian police standby capacity. China hopes that the Secretariat will specify and clarify the many aspects of the proposal as required by the Special Committee on Peacekeeping of the General Assembly. To establish a new mechanism entails cautious and thorough consideration so as to ensure its feasibility and effectiveness. Resources should be consolidated and limits of capacity respected and potential of the existing mechanisms fully tapped.
- 联合国维和资源有限,应合理有效使用。联合国可根据具体情况,对非洲区域组织开展的维和行动提供必要支持。   - The limited UN resources on peacekeeping should be rationally and effectively utilized. The UN may provide support, where necessary, to peacekeeping operations conducted by regional organizations in Africa.
- 中国支持加强联合国与区域组织的合作,以加强协调,发挥各自优势。区域组织开展的维和行动,须符合《联合国宪章》的宗旨和原则。   - China supports stronger cooperation between the UN and regional organizations for better coordination and full utilization of each other's advantages. Peacekeeping operations undertaken by regional organizations should comply with the purposes and principles of the UN Charter.
(九)建设和平   9. Peacebuilding
-中国支持设立建设和平委员会。委员会的职责应主要是协助制订从冲突过渡到冲突后重建的计划,协调国际社会努力。中国赞同秘书长关于该委员会不具有预警和监测职能、并主要发挥咨询作用的看法。   - China supports the establishment of the Peacebuilding Commission. The responsibilities of the Commission should focus on assisting the planning of the transition from conflict to post-conflict reconstruction and coordinating international efforts. China endorses the Secretary-General’s view that the Commission is largely an advisory body without early warning or monitoring function.
- 委员会主要向安理会负责,有助于保证其效率和效力。中国也支持经社理事会充分参与委员会的工作。   - The Commission will be responsible mainly to the Security Council, which is in the interest of its efficiency and effectiveness. China also supports the Economic and Social Council's full participation in the Commission's work.
-秘书处设立建设和平支助厅应本着精干和有效原则。   - The Secretariat should follow the principles of efficiency and effectiveness in setting up the Peacebuilding Support Office.

Fortsetzung (Teil 2)